shows that there are five essential skills ("five components of
that children must be taught in order to learn to read. Adults
help children learn to be good readers by systematically practicing
Recognizing and using individual sounds to create words, or phonemic
awareness. Children need to be taught to hear
sounds in words and that words are made up of the smallest parts of
Understanding the relationships between written letters and spoken
Children need to be taught the sounds individual printed letters and
of letters make. Knowing the relationships between letters and
helps children to recognize familiar words accurately and
and "decode" new words.
Developing the ability to read a text accurately and quickly, or
fluency. Children must learn to read words
from left to right rapidly and accurately in order to understand what
written. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words
automatically. When fluent readers read aloud, they read
and with expression. Readers who are weak in fluency read slowly, word
by word, focusing on decoding words instead of comprehending meaning.
Learning the meaning and the correct pronunciation of words, or
development. Children need to actively
build and expand their knowledge of written and spoken words, what they
mean and how they are used.
Acquiring strategies to understand, remember, and communicate what is
or reading comprehension strategies.
Children need to be taught comprehension strategies, or the steps good
readers use to make sure they understand text. Students who are
control of their own reading comprehension become purposeful, active
children and helping them practice
these five specific reading components can dramatically improve their